Tuesday, 5 September 2017

A Comparison of Nuggets and Clusters for Evaluating Timeline Summaries

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There is growing interest in systems that generate timeline summaries by filtering high-volume streams of documents to retain only those that are relevant to a particular event or topic. Continued advances in algorithms and techniques for this task depend on standardized and reproducible evaluation methodologies for comparing systems. However, timeline summary evaluation is still in its infancy, with competing methodologies currently being explored in international evaluation forums such as TREC. One area of active exploration is how to explicitly represent the units of information that should appear in a 'good' summary. Currently, there are two main approaches, one based on identifying nuggets in an external 'ground truth', and the other based on clustering system outputs. In this paper, by building test collections that have both nugget and cluster annotations, we are able to compare these two approaches. Specifically, we address questions related to evaluation effort, differences in the final evaluation products, and correlations between scores and rankings generated by both approaches. We summarize advantages and disadvantages of nuggets and clusters to offer recommendations for future system evaluations.

Gaurav Brauah, Richard McCreadie and Jimmy Lin.
A Comparison of Nuggets and Clusters for Evaluating Timeline Summaries
In Proceedings of CIKM, 2017.

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Analyzing Disproportionate Reaction via Comparative Multilingual Targeted Sentiment in Twitter

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Global events such as terrorist attacks are commented upon in social media, such as Twitter, in different languages and from different parts of the world. Most prior studies have focused on monolingual sentiment analysis, and therefore excluded an extensive proportion of the Twitter userbase. In this paper, we perform a multilingual comparative sentiment analysis study on the terrorist attack in Paris, during November 2015. In particular, we look at targeted sentiment, investigating opinions on specific entities, not simply the general sentiment of each tweet. Given the potentially inflammatory and polarizing effect that these types of tweets may have on attitudes, we examine the sentiments expressed about different targets and explore whether disproportionate reaction was expressed about such targets across different languages. Specifically, we assess whether the sentiment for French speaking Twitter users during the Paris attack differs from English-speaking ones. We identify disproportionately negative attitudes in the English dataset over the French one towards some entities and, via a crowdsourcing experiment, illustrate that this also extends to forming an annotator bias.

Karin Sim Smith, Richard McCreadie, Craig Macdonald, and Iadh Ounis
Analyzing Disproportionate Reaction via Comparative Multilingual Targeted Sentiment in Twitter
In Proceedings of ASONAM, 2017.

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Transfer Learning for Multi-language Twitter Election Classification

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Both politicians and citizens are increasingly embracing social media as a means to disseminate information and comment on various topics, particularly during significant political events, such as elections. Such commentary during elections is also of interest to social scientists and pollsters. To facilitate the study of social media during elections, there is a need to automatically identify  posts that are topically related to those elections. However, current studies have focused on elections within English-speaking regions, and hence the resultant election content classifiers are only applicable for elections in countries where the predominant language is English. On the other hand, as social media is becoming more prevalent worldwide, there is an increasing need for election classifiers that can be generalised across different languages, without building a training dataset for each election. In this paper, based upon transfer learning, we study the development of effective and reusable election classifiers for use on social media across multiple languages. We combine transfer learning with different classifiers such as Support Vector Machines (SVM) and state-of-the-art Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), which make use of word embedding representations for each social media post. We generalise the learned classifier models for cross-language classification by using a linear translation approach to map the word embedding vectors from one language into another. Experiments conducted over two election datasets in different languages show that without using any training data from the target language, linear translations outperform a classical transfer learning approach, namely Transfer Component Analysis (TCA), by 80% in recall and 25% in F1 measure.

Xiao Yang, Richard McCreadie, Craig Macdonald, and Iadh Ounis
Transfer Learning for Multi-language Twitter Election Classification
In Proceedings of ASONAM, 2017.

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Searching the Internet of Things

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Richard McCreadie, Dyaa Albakour, Jaranna Manotumruka, Craig Macdonald, and Iadh Ounis
Searching the Internet of Things
Building Blocks for IoT Analytics, 2016.

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